Day 1 :
Purdue University, USA
Keynote: Towards a new generation of C and N biogeochemistry models by incorporating more detailed microbial traits and physiological processes
Time : 08:50-09:20
Qianlai Zhuang has completed his PhD from the University of Alaska at Fairbanks and Postdoctoral studies at the Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole MA. He has published more than 120 peer-reviewed papers. His research focuses on advancing C and N biogeochemistry modeling. To date, he has modeled the impacts of permafrost dynamics, fi re disturbances, aerosol and ozone and hydrological dynamics on C and N dynamics of both land and aquatic ecosystems. He has extensively used these models to study the climate change effects on C and N dynamics and their feedbacks to the climate system.
This presentation will discuss how we have explicitly incorporated the effects of microbial activities on soil organic matter decomposition into a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Specifically, we will discuss how we have revised an existing Q10-based heterotrophic respiration algorithm, by incorporating the algorithms of Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten kinetics and microbial-enzyme interactions. The microbial physiology enabled model was then applied to quantify historical and future carbon dynamics of forest ecosystems in the conterminous United States and the Arctic. Our model simulations for the forest ecosystems in the United States demonstrate that the revised model better simulate historical ecosystem carbon dynamics. Another research effort has been made to incorporate a microbial dormancy into an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition algorithm. The model was then used to examine soil carbon dynamics with and without representation of microbial dormancy. The model was finally extrapolated to global temperate forest ecosystems. Our study shows that the dormancy model consistently produced a better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil carbon effluxes than the no dormancy model. Currently, we are developing more detailed microbial physiologically based soil C and N models that shall improve the quantification of the land ecosystem C and N dynamics and their feedbacks to the global climate system.
Center for Advanced Studies (CEAB-CSIC), Spain
Keynote: Resilience of marine protected areas: Linking species composition and biodiversity to ecosystem resistance
Time : 09:20-09:50
Mikel A Becerro completed his PhD in 1992 at the University of Barcelona. He has ample postdoctoral experience in the University of Guam Marine Laboratory, the University of Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution. He is the Director of the BITES lab, a researcher group based at the Spanish Research Council. He has published over 50 papers in top journals and edited a number of books.
Reefs over the world are under strong degradation threat as human population is steadily increasing on coastal areas. Biodiversity conservation relies on multifaceted human interventions, which ultimately depend on ecosystem resistance and resilience to succeed. Empirical data on ecosystem resistance and resilience is mostly lacking and their quantification remains a challenge. Here, we took a multivariate approach to develop a method based on species composition and biodiversity that provides resistance and resilience metrics. We used underwater visual census of fish, invertebrates, and algae to calculate species composition and biodiversity in three marine areas of Cabo de Gata (Mediterranean Sea) differing in management pressures, i.e., total, partial, and no protection. We aimed to identify resistance and sensibility of managed areas (partial and no-protection) to become reserves if management pressures were eliminated. The species abundance compositional data showed that the intermediate area resistance was lower (32%) than no-protected area (42%), whereas the sensibility to change was around 70% and 55% for partial and no-protected area, respectively. Both managed areas showed lower resistance to change considering species turnover than species composition (30%). Our results suggest that, after management cessation, bringing back species abundances is more complex than restoring species presence. Our results shed light on the evaluation of resilience frameworks on marine ecosystems, with strong implications in conservation. Marine ecosystem management and policy actuations based on the resilience properties of the systems may increase the efficiency of our intervations and make a significant step forward to understanding and preserving marine biodiversity.
Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil
Keynote: The variation in frog biodiversity along the forested landscape in Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil
Time : 09:50-10:20
Carlos F D Rocha is Professor of Ecology at the Department of Ecology, Institute of Biology at the Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ) where he works since 1988. He received his Master’s (1987) and PhD (1992) degrees in Ecology both from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. His main interests are in Ecology and Conservation of amphibians and reptiles. And he has more than 360 published articles. He has already supervised 31 students in PhD degree and 39 in Master´s degree. He is Adjunct Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution at UERJ. Since 1993, he is the Leader of the Tropical Vertebrate Ecology Group of the Brazilian Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) of the Brazilian Environmental Ministry Coordinating 101 researchers (44 PhD researchers and 57 Graduate and undergraduate students). Since 2004, he is Level I-A CNPq Researcher (Higher level of Brazilian scientists attributed by the Brazilian Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) of the Brazilian Environmental Ministry.
During large-scale field surveys in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, we analyzed how the biodiversity, density and similarity of frogs varied along the forested landscape in the Atlantic Rainforest Biome. We estimated frog biodiversity based on intensive field surveys sampling frog assemblages in nine Atlantic Rainforest areas covering all regions of the state. At each locality, we employed similar sampling effort in different periods of day in order to sample both diurnal and nocturnal species. Our searches in the areas totaled 706 sampling hours, recording 817 individual frogs from 69 species. Mean species richness varied among areas being highest at Estação Ecológica Paraíso - EEP (21 species) and lower in Parque Estadual Desengano - PED (9 species). Analyzing each frog species separately, abundance and density varied markedly among areas. Frog-species-independent overall abundances also varied consistently among areas being highest at Area Proteção da Mantiqueira (APAM) (133 individuals) and lower in PED (37 individuals). NMDS analysis showed that higher similarity in frog communities was found between Reserva Rio das Pedras (RERP) and Serra Concórdia (SC) and between EEP and Reserva Guapiaçu (REGUA). Our study evidences a trend for a conspicuous change in biodiversity of frogs along the forested landscape in Rio de Janeiro and most of such change may be explained based on geographic distance among areas possibly reflecting also structural and altitudinal differences among areas. Our results indicated the need of conservation efforts on amphibian species, especially in those frog-rich areas of the state.